By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This ebook provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken via fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the made of broad learn via the authors and individuals in box equipment and workforce research classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters overlaying the segmental phonology, tone procedure, morphology, and sentence constitution, through appendices at the Nzadi humans and background and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally incorporated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a few fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had now not even been pointed out within the literature, and at the moment nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its enormous grammatical simplification, leading to buildings really assorted from these of canonical Bantu languages. even if Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun type contract in genitive buildings. different parts of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet complete grammar presents wide insurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic houses that may be of capability curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this zone of the DRC, but additionally to typologists, normal linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
Since /o/ does not occur in closed syllables, which may have merged with /u/, it is tempting to interpret CeC as the realization of /CiC/. 15] /i/ vs. /e/ /e/ vs. 4. 4. 16] labial stops affricates fricatives nasals liquid glides p b (pf) bv f v m alveolar t ts s palatal d dz z velar k (g) labiovelar kp (gb) n l (r) y w As seen, Nzadi distinguishes five classes of stem-initial consonants: (unaspirated) stops, affricates, fricatives, nasals and the oral sonorants /l/, /w/ and /y/. Although five places of articulation are indicated, only the glide y (IPA [j]) is palatal, only stops can be velar, and 22 A Grammar of Nzadi only stops and the glide /w/ can be labiovelar.
Since pronouns often have LH tone, they too undergo the downstep contour simplification rule: fòtó m"‡` ‘my photograpph’ vs. mí mwa&àn ‘my photograph of the child’. ’ Tone 45 The phenomenon of contour simplification is thus quite pervasive in Nzadi. In some cases it is responsible for downsteps as well as alternations which otherwise appear to be exceptional. Some of these alternations which are restricted to specific constructions or are otherwise grammatically conditioned are treated in the next section.
Pity’ Absorption of the final L of (L)HL appears to apply whenever two words with these tones follow each other in succession (and without a major break or pause). Thus, the same tonal absorption takes place between a verb and an object noun or between object nouns. 16] /ndé â tûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! /ndé â sûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! ndé â túm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has sent the woman a book’ ndé â súm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has bought the woman a book’ Absorption of the H of LH is, on the other hand, more complicated.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu