By R. Franceys
Presents specific useful and technical suggestion meant to steer the choice, layout, development, and upkeep of on-site amenities for the elimination of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, clinical officials, and undertaking planners, the ebook concentrates on technical suggestions appropriate for owners construction their very own latrines, no matter if in small groups, rural parts, or disadvantaged city settlements. info diversity from line drawings illustrating positive factors of layout and building, via a listing of the reason why more desirable sanitation may perhaps elicit adverse responses from clients, to directions for calculating the inner dimensions of a septic tank.
The ebook gains 11 chapters in 3 components. Chapters within the first half introduce the principles of sanitary perform, describe the hyperlinks among excreta and sickness, and clarify the varied social and cultural elements that needs to be thought of on the making plans section. Chapters within the moment and so much wide half supply an in depth technical advisor to the layout, development, operation and upkeep of all of the major thoughts for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the different sorts of latrine paintings, talk about their relative advantages, and set out particular plans for the development of latrines and their parts. the ultimate half gains 3 chapters at the making plans and improvement of on-site sanitation initiatives, underscoring the necessity for a radical research of cultural in addition to layout positive factors.
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Additional resources for A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation
Fig. 10. Brick-covered drain Fig. 11. Moving the discharge pipe of an offset pour-flush latrine to a new pit Fig. 12. Pipe laid through a hole In an external wall Fig. 13. Pipe fixed in place through a wall Double-pit offset pour-flush latrines As with VIP latrines there are occasions when two shallow pits are more appropriate than a single deep pit. , 1984) and elsewhere. The pit design is the same as in the double-pit VIP latrine but the two toilets are replaced by a single waterseal pan connected to both pits by pipes.
As an alternative, the pump and tank may be mounted on a small, highly manoeuvrable site vehicle or on separate small vehicles in order to reach a latrine with limited accessibility. The disadvantage of using a smaller tank is that more journeys to the disposal point are required. Consequently, the suction pump is unused during this waiting period unless several small tankers are used with each pump. This can lead to a considerable increase in costs, particularly where disposal points are distant from the latrines.
Since the effluent from septic tanks is anaerobic and likely to contain large numbers of pathogens which can be a potential source of infection, it should not be used for crop irrigation nor should it be discharged to canals or surface-water drains without the permission of the local health authority. Design principles The guiding principles in designing a septic tank are: - to provide sufficient retention time for the sewage in the tank to allow separation of solids and stabilization of liquid; - to provide stable quiescent hydraulic conditions for efficient settlement and flotation of solids; - to ensure that the tank is large enough to store accumulated sludge and scum; - to ensure that no blockages are likely to occur and that there is adequate ventilation of gases.
A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation by R. Franceys