By Kaarle Nordenstreng, Ulf Jonas Björk, Frank Beyersdorf, Svennik Høyer, Epp Lauk, Juan Somavia
This learn offers a basic background of ways journalism as an rising career turned the world over prepared during the last 100 and 20 years, visible in general throughout the institutions based to advertise the pursuits of reporters worldwide.
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Additional info for A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics
Newspapers were no longer dependent on the evaluation of an elite, who traditionally had given their information 20 A History of the International Movement of Journalists and opinions by calling the attention of an editor or writing articles themselves when it suited their own interests. Along with the ascending news press, manned by reporters rather than by opinionated writers, the age of the front-page editorial was over. In the 1890s, the editorial was moved inside the newspaper to a special editorial page.
Radio multiplied the possibilities of using the word, and various new genres developed, which led to the emergence of a new kind of journalism – radio journalism. Journalists became known not only via their texts, but also very much by their voice. 50 On the other hand, radio enabled more immediate contact with public, who were not only readers anymore, but also the audience. The interview received new dimensions on radio, and later on television, becoming the main tool for both newsgathering and news presenting.
The global surveys, done by the teams of David H. 62 Compared nation by nation the survey answers demonstrate little or no international consensus about the purpose of journalism, except to bring the news as fast as possible to the audience. There ‘are strong national differences that override any universal professional norm or values of journalism around the world . . 63 A comparative study on ethical orientations of journalists in 18 countries by Patrick Lee Plaisance, Elizabeth A. Skewes and Thomas Hanitzsch also demonstrates that ‘ethical orientations do indeed vary across news organizations’64 and that ‘country-level differences matter more than [media] organizational differences’.
A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics by Kaarle Nordenstreng, Ulf Jonas Björk, Frank Beyersdorf, Svennik Høyer, Epp Lauk, Juan Somavia