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By George Hemphill

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O PARTS OF SPEECH AND PARADIGMS We cannot always properly say that a given word belongs to a set or class called a certain part of speech (or "form class"), but only (a) that its stem or its affix is associated with that part of speech, (b) that it enters into paradigms associated with that part of speech, (c) that it occupies positions in syntactic structures associated with that part of speech, or (d) that it has a syntactic extension or range associated with that part of speech. These four criteria will determine our procedure in the present chapter.

Parentheses, as above, signify "incapacity of an element to stand alone". The zero predicate "(0)" is very close to the F of the present grammar. Sapir writes the formula for the Latin cor as A -f- (0) -f (0) + (0). meaning that cor can enter into paradigms with three predicates—a predicate of number, gender, and of case. A most interesting and numerous kind of molecular word has structure— compound or complex—in a parent language only. Study of morphemic structure in parent languages is usually called etymology nowadays, though this once meant 'inflection', the subject of Chapter 5.

Dialectal allophones are specified by description. Environmental allophones are marked EA; substandard allophones appear in parenthesis. The example on the first line below the equation corresponds to [%], the example on the second line to [a 2 ], and so on. For convenience in printing, [ . , 1 . . ] becomes close spacing, [ . A . ] becomes the lexicographers' raised dot [ . . · . . ] , and [ . A . ] becomes one-em spacing. ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4 /«/ = [ « , a , » , 9 , ] father [fá-dr] 4 half [haf] sorry [sáó'ri] SD I O ] E A what [AV9t] /*/ = [se, ε, e, (a), ] am [sem] SD merry [m¿-n] SD Mary [mé-ri] W.

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A Mathematical Grammar of English by George Hemphill


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