By Harland G. Tompkins
A User's advisor to Ellipsometry will allow readers to maneuver past constrained turn-key purposes of ellipsometers. as well as its complete discussions of the dimension of movie thickness and optical constants in movie, it additionally considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and the way adjustments in fabrics have an effect on parameters. This quantity additionally addresses using polysilicon, a fabric quite often hired within the microelectronics undefined, and the results of substrate roughness. 3 appendices supply beneficial references.
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Pressure, Compression, and Shear --
Introduction to Mechanics of fabrics --
Normal rigidity and pressure --
Mechanical homes of fabrics --
Elasticity, Plasticity, and Creep --
Linear Elasticity, Hooke's legislation, and Poisson's Ratio --
Shear rigidity and pressure --
Allowable Stresses and Allowable so much --
Design for Axial rather a lot and Direct Shear --
Axially Loaded individuals --
Changes in Lengths of Axially Loaded individuals --
Changes in Lengths of Nonuniform Bars --
Statically Indeterminate constructions --
Thermal results, Misfits, and Prestrains --
Stresses on susceptible Sections --
Strain power --
Impact Loading --
Repeated Loading and Fatigue --
Stress Concentrations --
Nonlinear habit --
Elastoplastic research --
Torsional Deformations of a round Bar --
Circular Bars of Linearly Elastic fabrics --
Nonuniform Torsion --
Stresses and traces in natural Shear --
Relationship among Moduli of Elasticity E and G --
Transmission of strength via round Shafts --
Statically Indeterminate Torsional participants --
Strain strength in Torsion and natural Shear --
Thin-Walled Tubes --
Stress Concentrations in Torsion --
Shear Forces and Bending Moments --
Types of Beams, quite a bit, and Reactions --
Shear Forces and Bending Moments --
Relationships among rather a lot, Shear Forces, and Bending Moments --
Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams --
Stresses in Beams (Basic themes) --
Pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending --
Curvature of a Beam --
Longitudinal lines in Beams --
Normal Stresses in Beams (Linearly Elastic Materials).
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Extra resources for A User's Guide to Ellipsometry
Opt. Soc. , 55,1061 (1965). F. L. McCrackin, Nat. Bur. Stand. Tech. Note 479 (1969). S. Chandrasekhar, A. S. Vengurlekar, S. K. Roy, and V. T. Karulkar, J. Appl. , 63, 2072 (1988). 1 Inaccessible Substrates and Unknown Films In Chapter 3, we discussed the Del/Psi trajectories for various kinds of films. From that discussion, it might appear that one simply measures Del and Psi and then determines by inspection the value of the thickness. The Del/Psi trajectory can readily be calculated if the filmfree values of Del and Psi are known (and hence N3 = n3 - j k3) and if the index of refraction N2 of the film is known.
The indices for the substrates are given in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1. Optical Constants for Several Metals, along with Corresponding Δ°, Ψ0, and Depth to 1/e. 5 μ n & k values from Amer. Inst, o f Phys. Handbook, D. E. 65 on several metals. For illustration purposes, we have taken the index for the Trajectories for Absorbing Films 45 various substrates from a handbook and they are listed in Table 3-1. We emphasize that this is for illustrative purposes only; in actual practice, one should measure these for the particular samples of interest.
In fact, if these are known, one can usually use the canned software that came with the ellipsometer to determine thickness and often the index of the film. We have discussed the danger of using handbook values for the index of refraction of the substrate and urged the reader to determine the values for the particular substrate of interest, although we have not discussed how one obtains these values. For a system such as an organic film deposited on gold, it is a simple matter to measure the surface before deposition, to obtain the values of Del° and Psi°, and then to measure the film-covered surface after deposition to obtain the values of Del and Psi.
A User's Guide to Ellipsometry by Harland G. Tompkins