By Chris Atton
During this ebook, Chris Atton deals a clean creation to substitute media: one that isn't really constrained to `radical' media, yet may also account for more recent cultural varieties resembling zines, fanzines, and private web content. replacement Media: Examines how and why humans produce and use replacement media - to make that means, to interpret, and to alter the realm within which they reside includes a wide variety of other media and attracts on examples from either the U.S. and uk Locates modern replacement media of their cultural, old and political contexts
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Extra resources for Alternative Media (Culture, Representation and Identity)
The printing plates of issue no. 6 were sent to an Earth First! group in the Czech Republic, enabling them to print copies for their own distribution. If Do or Die's desire to expand its pagination has eroded its ability to participate in open distribution, the shorter SchNEWS, an activist newsletter based in Brighton (normally two pages of A4) lends itself to quick and cheap recopying and reprinting. Although it began life as a centrally produced and distributed publication, within five months it was offering its contents - in part or as a whole - to anyone who wished to use it: 'Strictly @nticopyright - customise ...
This had doubled by the next issue (Autumn 1994), whilst the circulation of Squall, 9 (its first tabloid edition, appearing a little over a year later) was 5,000 (Malyon, 1995). Circulation continued to improve: no. 4 The Big Issue, by contrast, has a circulation significantly higher than even many mainstream magazines. The combined circulation of its four 40 A LT ERN A T I V E M E0 I A editions is estimated at almost half a million (Swithinbank, 1996); the most recent audited circulation for its London edition is 132,787.
Similar parallels may be found in the anarchist presses of the turn of the century (Hopkin, 1978; Quail, 1978) and of the 1990s (Atton, 1999a), where they also resonate with a larger, non-aligned network of social movement publications centred on radical environmentalism (Carey, 1998; Searle, 1997). This is not to ignore the historical and cultural contingencies of these practices, nor to homogenize their political content or their aims. Alternative media - like any forms of cultural production and their creators are positioned, 'enunciated': 'we all write and speak from a particular place and time, from a history and a culture which is specific' (Hall, 1990: 222).
Alternative Media (Culture, Representation and Identity) by Chris Atton